Building in the Open Build Service¶
This document gives a brief overview how to build images with KIWI NG in version 9.20.17 inside of the Open Build Service. A tutorial on the Open Buildservice itself can be found here: https://en.opensuse.org/openSUSE:Build_Service_Tutorial
The next generation KIWI NG is fully integrated with the Open Build Service.
In order to start it’s best to checkout one of the integration test
image build projects from the base Testing project
For example the test images for SUSE on x86 can be found here.
Advantages of using the Open Build Service (OBS)¶
The Open Build Service offers multiple advantages over running KIWI NG locally:
OBS will host the latest successful build for you without having to setup a server yourself.
As KIWI NG is fully integrated into OBS, OBS will automatically rebuild your images if one of the included packages or one of its dependencies or KIWI NG itself get updated.
The builds will no longer have to be executed on your own machine, but will run on OBS, thereby saving you resources. Nevertheless, if a build fails, you get a notification via email (if enabled in your user’s preferences).
Differences Between Building Locally and on OBS¶
Note, there is a number of differences when building images with KIWI NG using the Open Build Service. Your image that build locally just fine, might not build without modifications.
The notable differences to running KIWI NG locally include:
OBS will pick the KIWI NG package from the repositories configured in your project, which will most likely not be the same version that you are running locally. This is especially relevant when building images for older versions like SUSE Linux Enterprise. Therefore, include the custom appliances repository as described in the following section: Recommendations.
When KIWI NG runs on OBS, OBS will extract the list of packages from
config.xmland use it to create a build root. In contrast to a local build (where your distributions package manager will resolve the dependencies and install the packages), OBS will not build your image if there are multiple packages that could be chosen to satisfy the dependencies of your packages 1. This shows errors like this:
unresolvable: have choice for SOMEPACKAGE: SOMEPAKAGE_1 SOMEPACKAGE_2
This can be solved by explicitly specifying one of the two packages in the project configuration via the following setting:
Place the above line into the project configuration, which can be accessed either via the web interface (click on the tab
Project Configon your project’s main page) or via
osc meta -e prjconf.
We strongly encourage you to remove your repositories from
config.xmland move them to the repository configuration in your project’s settings. This usually prevents the issue of having the choice for multiple package version and results in a much smoother experience when using OBS.
By default, OBS builds only a single build type and the default profile. If your appliance uses multiple build types, put each build type into a profile, as OBS cannot handle multiple build types.
There are two options to build multiple profiles on OBS:
<image>element and add it bellow the XML declaration (
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!-- OBS-Profiles: foo_profile bar_profile --> <image schemaversion="7.2" name="openSUSE-Leap-15.1"> <!-- image description with the profiles foo_profile and bar_profile </image>
Use the multibuild feature.
The first option is simpler to use, but has the disadvantage that your appliances are built sequentially. The
multibuildfeature allows to build each profile as a single package, thereby enabling parallel execution, but requires an additional
_multibuildfile. For the above example
config.xmlwould have to be adapted as follows:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!-- OBS-Profiles: @BUILD_FLAVOR@ --> <image schemaversion="7.2" name="openSUSE-Leap-15.1"> <!-- image description with the profiles foo_profile and bar_profile </image>
_multibuildwould have the following contents:
<multibuild> <flavor>foo_profile</flavor> <flavor>bar_profile</flavor> </multibuild>
Subfolders in OBS projects are ignored by default by osc and must be explicitly added via osc add $FOLDER 2. Bear that in mind when adding the overlay files inside the
root/directory to your project.
OBS ignores file permissions. Therefore
images.shwill always be executed through BASH (see also: User Defined Scripts).
Working with OBS¶
Although OBS is an online service, it is not necessary to test every change
by uploading it. OBS will use the same process as
osc build does, so if
your image builds locally via
osc build it should also build online on
When setting up the project, enable the
images repository: the
repository’s checkbox can be found at the bottom of the selection screen
that appears when clicking
Add from a Distribution in the
tab. Or specify it manually in the project configuration (it can be
osc meta -e prj):
<repository name="images"> <arch>x86_64</arch> </repository>
Furthermore, OBS requires additional repositories from which it obtains your dependent packages. These repositories can be provided in two ways:
Add the repositories to the project configuration on OBS and omit them from
config.xml. Provide only the following repository inside the image description:
<repository type="rpm-md"> <source path="obsrepositories:/"/> </repository>
This instructs OBS to inject the repositories from your project into your appliance.
Additional repositories can be added by invoking
osc meta -e prjand adding a line of the following form as a child of
<path project="$OBS_PROJECT" repository="$REPOSITORY_NAME"/>
The order in which you add repositories matters: if a package is present in multiple repositories, then it is taken from the first repository. The last repository is subject to path expansion: its repository paths are included as well.
Don’t forget to add the repository from the
Virtualization:Appliances:Builderproject, providing the latest stable version of KIWI NG (which you are very likely using for your local builds).
The following example repository configuration 3 adds the repositories from the
Virtualization:Appliances:Builderproject and those from the latest snapshot of openSUSE Tumbleweed:
<project name="Virtualization:Appliances:Images:openSUSE-Tumbleweed"> <title>JeOS for Tumbleweed </title> <description>Host JeOS images for Tumbleweed</description> <repository name="images"> <path project="Virtualization:Appliances:Builder" repository="Factory"/> <path project="openSUSE:Factory" repository="snapshot"/> <arch>x86_64</arch> </repository> </project>
The above can be simplified further using the path expansion of the last repository to:
<project name="Virtualization:Appliances:Images:openSUSE-Tumbleweed"> <title>JeOS for Tumbleweed </title> <description>Host JeOS images for Tumbleweed</description> <repository name="images"> <path project="Virtualization:Appliances:Builder" repository="Factory"/> <arch>x86_64</arch> </repository> </project>
Virtualization:Appliances:Builderis the last repository, which’ repositories are included into the search path. As
openSUSE:Factory/snapshotis among these, it can be omitted from the repository list.
Keep the repositories in your
config.xmlconfiguration file. If you have installed the latest stable KIWI NG as described in Installation then you should add the following repository to your projects configuration (accessible via osc meta -e prjconf), so that OBS will pick the latest stable KIWI NG version too:
<repository name="images"> <path project="Virtualization:Appliances:Builder" repository="$DISTRO"/> <arch>x86_64</arch> </repository>
$DISTROwith the appropriate name for the distribution that you are currently building and optionally adjust the architecture.
We recommend to use the first method, as it integrates better into OBS. Note that your image description will then no longer build outside of OBS though. If building locally is required, use the second method.
Adding the repositories to project’s configuration makes it impossible to build images for different distributions from the same project.
Since the repositories are added for every package in your project, all your image builds will share the same repositories, thereby resulting in conflicts for different distributions.
We recommend to create a separate project for each distribution. If that
is impossible, you can keep all your repositories (including
config.xml. That however
usually requires a large number of workarounds via
Prefer: settings in
the project configuration and is thus not recommended.
The Open Build Service will by default create the same output file as KIWI NG when run locally, but with a custom filename ending (that is unfortunately unpredictable). This has the consequence that the download URL of your image will change with every rebuild (and thus break automated scripts). OBS can create symbolic links with static names to the latest build by adding the following line to the project configuration:
If you have added your repositories to
config.xml, you probably see
errors of the following type:
unresolvable: have choice for SOMEPACKAGE: SOMEPAKAGE_1 SOMEPACKAGE_2
Instead of starting from scratch and manually adding
to the project configuration, we recommend to copy the current project
configuration of the testing project
Virtualization:Appliances:Images:Testing_$ARCH:$DISTRO into your own project.
It provides a good starting point and can be adapted to your OBS project.
This is a design decision made by OBS: as it’s purpose is to build packages in a reproducible fashion it cannot make a decision which package to choose from multiple available ones. A package manager build for end-users on the other hand must make an a choice, as it would be otherwise hardly usable.
osccompresses added folders into a cpio archive and decompresses it before running your builds. The only downside of this is, that the contents of your overlay is not conveniently visible via the web interface.
Taken from the project Virtualization:Appliances:Images:openSUSE-Tumbleweed
Vagrant uses these JSON files for automatic updates of your Vagrant boxes.